• <var id="vq7mp"></var>

  • <rp id="vq7mp"></rp>
  • <dd id="vq7mp"></dd>

    BBC英語 學英語,練聽力,上聽力課堂! 注冊 登錄
    > BBC > BBC news > 2023年BBC新聞聽力 >  內容

    雙語新聞:研究顯示,部分尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人生存在我們的基因中

    所屬教程:2023年BBC新聞聽力

    瀏覽:

    tingliketang

    2023年10月02日

    手機版
    掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
    Neanderthals live on within us.
    尼安德特人生活在我們體內。
     
    These ancient human relatives, and others, called Denisovans, once lived alongside our early Homo sapiens ancestors. The groups mixed and had children. As a result, some of the Neanderthals and Denisovans live on in our genes. And science is starting to show just how much that shapes us.
    這些古老的人類親屬,以及其他被稱為丹尼索瓦人的人,曾經與我們早期的智人祖先生活在一起。這兩組人混在一起,生了孩子。因此,一些尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人在我們的基因中生存??茖W開始表明,這在多大程度上塑造了我們。
     
    Mary Prendergast, a Rice University archeologist, said, "We're now carrying the genetic legacies and learning about what that means for our bodies and our health."
    萊斯大學考古學家Mary Prendergast說:“我們現在正在攜帶遺傳遺產,并了解這對我們的身體和健康意味著什么。”
     
    In the past few months, researchers have linked Neanderthal DNA to a serious hand disease, the shape of people's noses and other human traits. They even placed a gene carried by Neanderthals and Denisovans into mice to investigate its effects on biology. The researchers found that the gene gave the mice larger heads and an extra rib.
    在過去的幾個月里,研究人員將尼安德特人的DNA與一種嚴重的手部疾病、人的鼻子形狀和其他人類特征聯系起來。他們甚至將尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人攜帶的一種基因放入小鼠體內,以研究其對生物學的影響。研究人員發現,該基因使小鼠的頭部更大,肋骨也多了一根。
     
    Much of the human story remains a mystery. But Dr. Hugo Zeberg of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden said new technologies and research are helping scientists begin to answer the questions: "Who are we? Where did we come from?"
    人類故事的大部分仍然是個謎。但瑞典卡羅琳斯卡研究所的Hugo Zeberg博士表示,新技術和研究正在幫助科學家開始回答這些問題:“我們是誰?我們來自哪里?”
     
    And the answers point to a deep reality: We have far more in common with our ancient cousins than we ever thought.
    答案指向了一個深刻的現實:我們與古老的表親有著比我們想象的多得多的共同點。
     
    Neanderthal, Denisovan DNA
    尼安德特人,丹尼索瓦人DNA
     
    Until recently, the genetic legacy from ancient humans was invisible. But there has been a number of discoveries from ancient DNA, an area of study developed by Nobel Prize winner Svante Paabo. He was first in creating a Neanderthal genome.
    直到最近,來自古代人類的基因遺產還是看不見的。但是,諾貝爾獎獲得者Svante Paabo開發的一個研究領域——古代DNA已經有了一些發現。他是創造尼安德特人基因組的第一人。
     
    Research shows some African populations have almost no Neanderthal DNA, while those from European or Asian backgrounds have up to two percent. Denisovan DNA is rarely found in most parts of the world but makes up four to six percent of the DNA of people in Melanesia. The Pacific Ocean area extends from New Guinea to the Fiji Islands.
    研究表明,一些非洲人口幾乎沒有尼安德特人的DNA,而那些來自歐洲或亞洲背景的人則有高達2%的DNA。丹尼索瓦人的DNA在世界大部分地區很少發現,但占美拉尼西亞人DNA的4%至6%。太平洋區域從新幾內亞一直延伸到斐濟群島。
     
    That may not sound like much, but it adds up: Even though only 100,000 Neanderthals ever lived, "half of the Neanderthal genome is still around, in small pieces scattered around modern humans," said Zeberg, who works closely with Paabo.
    這聽起來可能不算多,但總的來說:盡管只有10萬尼安德特人生活過,“尼安德特人基因組的一半仍然存在,分散在現代人類周圍,”與Paabo密切合作的澤伯格說。
     
    It is also enough to affect us in very real ways. Scientists studying the subject say the DNA can be both helpful and harmful.
    它也足以以非常真實的方式影響我們。研究該主題的科學家表示,DNA既有幫助,也有有害。
     
    For example, Neanderthal DNA has been linked to autoimmune diseases like Graves' disease and rheumatoid arthritis. When Homo sapiens came out of Africa, they had no immunity to diseases in Europe and Asia. But, Neanderthals and Denisovans already living there did.
    例如,尼安德特人的DNA與格雷夫斯病和類風濕性關節炎等自身免疫性疾病有關。當智人從非洲出來時,他們對歐洲和亞洲的疾病沒有免疫力。但是,已經生活在那里的尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人做到了。
     
    Chris Stringer is a human evolution researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. Stringer said that by mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans, Homo sapiens "got a quick fix to our immune systems, which was good news 50,000 years ago." Stringer added, "The result today is, for some people, that our immune systems are oversensitive, and sometimes they turn on themselves."
    克里斯·斯特林格是倫敦自然歷史博物館的人類進化研究員。斯特林格說,通過與尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人交配,智人“快速修復了我們的免疫系統,這在5萬年前是個好消息。”斯特林格補充道,“今天的結果是,對一些人來說,我們的免疫系統過于敏感,有時會自行啟動。”
     
    In 2020, research by Zeberg and Paabo found that a major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 came from Neanderthals. "We compared it to the Neanderthal genome and it was a perfect match," Zeberg said.
    2020年,Zeberg和Paabo的研究發現,嚴重新冠肺炎的一個主要遺傳風險因素來自尼安德特人。澤伯格說:“我們將其與尼安德特人的基因組進行了比較,結果非常吻合。”
     
    The next year, they found a set of DNA variants along a single chromosome inherited from Neanderthals had the opposite effect: protecting people from severe COVID.
    第二年,他們發現從尼安德特人遺傳的一條染色體上的一組DNA變體具有相反的效果:保護人們免受嚴重的新冠肺炎的侵襲。
     
    Much less is known about our genetic legacy from Denisovans – although some research has linked genes from them to fat processing and better performance at high altitudes. Maanasa Raghavan, a human genetics expert at the University of Chicago, said Tibetans carry an amount of Denisovan DNA. She noted that the population continues to live and do well in low-oxygen environments today.
    盡管一些研究將丹尼索瓦人的基因與脂肪加工和在高海拔地區的更好表現聯系起來,但人們對我們的基因遺產知之甚少。芝加哥大學的人類遺傳學專家Maanasa Raghavan說,藏人攜帶大量丹尼索瓦人的DNA。她指出,如今,人口在低氧環境中繼續生活并表現良好。
     
    Human evolution
    人類進化
     
    John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison said that human evolution was not about "survival of the fittest and extinction." Instead, he suggested, it is about "interaction and mixture."
    威斯康星大學麥迪遜分校的約翰·霍克斯說,人類進化不是“適者生存和滅絕”。相反,他認為,它是“相互作用和混合”。
     
    Researchers expect to learn more as the science continues to develop. Even when ancient bones are not available, scientists today can get DNA from soil where ancient humans once lived.
    隨著科學的不斷發展,研究人員希望能學到更多。即使在沒有古代骨骼的情況下,今天的科學家也可以從古代人類曾經生活過的土壤中獲得DNA。
     
    And there are less-explored places in the world where researchers hope to learn more. Zeberg said "biobanks" that collect biological materials will likely be established in more countries.
    世界上還有一些探索較少的地方,研究人員希望在那里了解更多。澤伯格表示,收集生物材料的“生物庫”可能會在更多國家建立。
     
    As researchers go deeper into humanity's genetic legacy, scientists expect to find even more evidence of how much we mixed with our ancient cousins and all they left us.
    隨著研究人員深入研究人類的遺傳遺產,科學家們希望找到更多的證據來證明我們與我們的古老表親以及他們留給我們的一切有多混雜。
     
    "Perhaps," Zeberg said, "we should not see them as so different."
    “也許,”澤伯格說,“我們不應該把它們看作如此不同。”

    用戶搜索

    瘋狂英語 英語語法 新概念英語 走遍美國 四級聽力 英語音標 英語入門 發音 美語 四級 新東方 七年級 賴世雄 zero是什么意思江門市錦江花城(別墅)英語學習交流群

    • 頻道推薦
    • |
    • 全站推薦
    • 推薦下載
    • 網站推薦
    国产精品毛片VA|亚洲欧美蜜芽tv在线一区|天天躁夜夜躁狠狠躁图片swag|亚洲欧美中文日韩在线
  • <var id="vq7mp"></var>

  • <rp id="vq7mp"></rp>
  • <dd id="vq7mp"></dd>